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ƒA ƒJ ƒT ƒ^ ƒi ƒn ƒ} ƒ„ ƒ‰ ƒ –’Ϊ
ƒC ƒL ƒV ƒ` ƒj ƒq ƒ~ ƒŠ “‡ –’’θ
ƒE ƒN ƒX ƒc ƒk ƒt ƒ€ ƒ† ƒ‹ ’O –؏Ϊ
ƒG ƒP ƒZ ƒe ƒl ƒw ƒ ƒŒ
ƒI ƒR ƒ\ ƒg ƒm ƒz ƒ‚ ƒˆ ƒ

ƒT ( 392ƒŒƒR[ƒh)

˜a@–Ό‰Θ
ƒTƒCƒEƒXƒ€ƒ‰ƒTƒLƒ_ƒJƒ‰ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒCƒEƒ“ƒoƒCƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒCƒLƒnƒiƒ„ƒJƒGƒrƒXƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒYƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒCƒRƒNƒrƒƒEƒhƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒCƒVƒ…ƒEƒ€ƒVƒIƒC‚Μ’‡ŠΤƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV’΄‰Θ ƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV‰Θ
ƒTƒCƒdƒ`ƒcƒuƒŠ Λ’Ζ“ͺƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒCƒdƒ`ƒiƒKƒjƒVƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒCƒdƒ`ƒ{ƒ‰ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒEƒXƒAƒtƒŠƒJƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC (‰ΌΜ)ƒAƒtƒŠƒJƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒtƒŠƒJƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒIƒgƒƒCƒ‚ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒIƒgƒƒGƒrƒXƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒYƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒIƒgƒƒKƒTƒXƒJƒVƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒXƒJƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒIƒgƒƒqƒ^ƒ`ƒIƒrƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒKƒNƒtƒ{ƒ‰(ƒqƒ^ƒ`ƒIƒr)‰Θ
ƒTƒJƒKƒƒEƒlƒ}ƒLƒ{ƒ‰ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒJƒTƒ}ƒŒ[ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒJƒTƒ}ƒŒ[ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‚ΜˆκŽνƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒJƒ}ƒLƒGƒ]ƒ{ƒ‰ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒJƒ}ƒLƒIƒJƒ~ƒ~ƒKƒCƒIƒJƒ~ƒ~ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒIƒJƒ~ƒ~ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒJƒ}ƒLƒKƒC ‹tŠͺŠLƒTƒJƒ}ƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒTƒJƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒJƒ}ƒLƒ{ƒ‰ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒJƒ“ƒ€ƒŠƒ{ƒ‰‰Θ
ƒTƒKƒ~ƒAƒ‰ƒŒƒiƒKƒjƒVƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒKƒ~ƒCƒgƒJƒPƒKƒCƒAƒTƒKƒIƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒgƒJƒPƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒKƒ~ƒIƒŠƒCƒŒƒVƒ‰ƒ^ƒ}ƒ^ƒ}ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒ}ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒKƒ~ƒRƒtƒWƒKƒC ‘Š–͏¬•xŽmŠLƒEƒƒRƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ`ƒŠƒnƒMƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒKƒ~ƒVƒƒKƒT cf.ƒcƒ^ƒmƒnƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒƒKƒTƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒKƒ~ƒiƒKƒjƒV ‘Š–Ν’·h—†ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒKƒ~ƒnƒuƒ^ƒGƒVƒ^ƒ_ƒ~ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒYƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒKƒ~ƒoƒC ‘Š–Ν蛽ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒKƒ~ƒqƒ^ƒ`ƒIƒrƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒKƒNƒtƒ{ƒ‰(ƒqƒ^ƒ`ƒIƒr)‰Θ
ƒTƒKƒ~ƒtƒ~ƒKƒC cf.ƒgƒ}ƒ„ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒgƒ}ƒ„ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒKƒ~ƒ}ƒ‹ƒ~ƒmƒKƒCƒ~ƒmƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ~ƒmƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒLƒOƒƒAƒ‰ƒ{ƒŠƒcƒuƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒLƒOƒƒIƒJƒJƒNƒ^ƒjƒV (‰ΌΜ)ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒLƒOƒƒ^ƒ}ƒcƒƒ^ƒ^ƒ}ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒ}ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒLƒVƒ}ƒmƒ~ƒMƒZƒ‹ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒLƒVƒ}ƒqƒVƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒLƒ{ƒ\ƒJƒjƒ‚ƒŠƒIƒjƒmƒcƒmƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒIƒjƒmƒcƒmƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒMƒKƒC λŠLƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒMƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒLƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒTƒMƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒL‰Θ
ƒTƒMƒmƒnƒˆƒEƒ‰ƒNƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒNƒVƒRƒ‰ƒ‰ƒbƒpƒKƒC i‰ΌΜjƒTƒiƒMƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒoƒTƒiƒMƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒNƒ‰ƒAƒIƒKƒCƒcƒ^ƒmƒnƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ†ƒLƒmƒJƒTƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒNƒ‰ƒCƒ‚ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒNƒ‰ƒKƒCƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒPƒcƒmƒKƒC —τŠpŠLƒTƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒcƒmƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒTƒQƒeƒ“ƒOƒKƒCƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒTƒQƒ~ƒ~ƒGƒKƒCƒtƒlƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒlƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒTƒbƒNƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒRƒEƒ‰ƒiƒƒNƒW’΄‰Θ ƒxƒbƒRƒEƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒTƒmƒcƒ†ƒKƒCƒJƒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒTƒmƒnƒCƒVƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒTƒmƒn‚Μ’‡ŠΤ@’†‘ƒCƒVƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒUƒG ‰h—†ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒŠƒ…ƒEƒeƒ“ƒTƒUƒG‰Θ
ƒTƒUƒiƒ~ƒXƒCƒVƒ‡ƒEƒKƒCƒXƒCƒVƒ‡ƒEƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒXƒCƒVƒ‡ƒEƒKƒC(ƒ\ƒfƒ{ƒ‰)‰Θ
ƒTƒUƒiƒ~ƒ^ƒ}ƒLƒr (‰ΌΜ)ƒ^ƒ}ƒLƒr’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒ}ƒLƒrƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒUƒiƒ~ƒgƒRƒuƒVƒIƒLƒiƒGƒrƒX’΄‰Θ ƒ~ƒ~ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒUƒiƒ~ƒlƒŠƒKƒCƒlƒŠƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒlƒŠƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒUƒiƒ~ƒlƒŠƒKƒC‚Μ“μƒCƒ“ƒOƒ‰ƒ“ƒh‚ΜŒ^ƒlƒŠƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒlƒŠƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒUƒiƒ~ƒqƒŒƒˆƒEƒ‰ƒNƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒUƒiƒ~ƒtƒlƒKƒC ‹ίŽ—ƒJƒŠƒoƒKƒTƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒJƒŠƒoƒKƒTƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒUƒiƒ~ƒ}ƒNƒ‰ ¬”g–ƒCƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒUƒƒKƒC‚Μ’‡ŠΤ –’Ϊƒ}ƒ‹ƒXƒ_ƒŒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ}ƒ‹ƒXƒ_ƒŒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒUƒŒƒCƒ{ƒ{ƒ‰ ¬Ξαn–@—†ƒ„ƒcƒVƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ{ƒ{ƒ‰‰Θ
ƒTƒUƒŒƒ^ƒ}ƒKƒC cf.ƒ^ƒ}ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒ}ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒUƒ“ƒJƒCƒ‚ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒVƒRƒcƒu ŽhŽq¬—†ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒ\ƒŠƒCƒ`ƒ‡ƒEƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒ\ƒŠƒKƒCƒXƒCƒVƒ‡ƒEƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒXƒCƒVƒ‡ƒEƒKƒC(ƒ\ƒfƒ{ƒ‰)‰Θ
ƒTƒbƒ|ƒƒRƒMƒZƒ‹ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒbƒ|ƒƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒIƒiƒWƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒcƒLƒjƒ“ƒMƒ‡ƒEƒ{ƒ‰ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒKƒNƒtƒ{ƒ‰(ƒqƒ^ƒ`ƒIƒr)‰Θ
ƒTƒcƒ}ƒAƒJƒKƒC ŽF–€ΤŠLƒ}ƒ‹ƒXƒ_ƒŒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ}ƒ‹ƒXƒ_ƒŒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒcƒ}ƒAƒTƒŠƒ}ƒ‹ƒXƒ_ƒŒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ}ƒ‹ƒXƒ_ƒŒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒcƒ}ƒLƒŠƒIƒŒ (ƒNƒŠƒCƒƒLƒŠƒIƒŒ)ƒ~ƒcƒNƒ`ƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ~ƒcƒNƒ`ƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒcƒ}ƒNƒŠƒCƒƒJƒƒUƒ“ƒVƒ‡ƒEƒŠƒ\ƒcƒ{’΄‰Θ ƒJƒƒUƒ“ƒVƒ‡ƒEƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒcƒ}ƒcƒuƒŠƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒcƒ}ƒcƒuƒŠƒ{ƒ‰‚Μ’‡ŠΤƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒcƒ}ƒrƒi ŽF–€εƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ}ƒNƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒcƒ}ƒrƒi‚ΜˆκŒ^ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ}ƒNƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒcƒ}ƒ{ƒ‰ƒ„ƒcƒVƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒWƒcƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒcƒ}ƒ€ƒVƒIƒC ŽF–€’Ž•‰ƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV’΄‰Θ ƒ€ƒVƒIƒCƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒeƒ“ƒwƒŠƒgƒŠƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒwƒŠƒgƒŠƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒgƒEƒKƒCƒtƒlƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒlƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒhƒcƒ{ƒŠƒ\ƒcƒ{’΄‰Θ ƒŠƒ\ƒcƒ{‰Θ
ƒTƒhƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC ²“nε—‹ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒIƒiƒWƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒhƒ„ƒ}ƒLƒTƒSƒAƒ}ƒIƒuƒl’΄‰Θ ƒ„ƒ}ƒLƒTƒS‰Θ
ƒTƒiƒMƒCƒgƒJƒPƒNƒ`ƒLƒŒ ?ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒiƒMƒGƒ“ƒgƒcƒmƒ^ƒEƒ`ƒKƒC@i‰ΌΜjƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV’΄‰Θ ƒSƒ}ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒiƒMƒKƒC‚Μ’‡ŠΤƒTƒiƒMƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒTƒiƒMƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒiƒMƒKƒCƒ_ƒ}ƒVƒTƒiƒMƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒTƒiƒMƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒiƒMƒcƒNƒVƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒcƒNƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒiƒMƒ}ƒNƒ‰ εŒ–ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ}ƒNƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒiƒMƒ‚ƒcƒ{ƒIƒjƒmƒcƒmƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒXƒiƒ‚ƒ`ƒcƒ{‰Θ
ƒTƒiƒMƒ‚ƒhƒL‚Μ’‡ŠΤƒTƒiƒMƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒTƒiƒMƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒnƒ‰ƒ^ƒ}ƒ^ƒ}ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒ}ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒoƒNƒmƒLƒZƒLƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC (‰ΌΜ)ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒoƒ_ƒJƒ‰ rostrateƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒoƒ_ƒJƒ‰ƒ‚ƒhƒLƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒrƒCƒƒJƒTƒKƒCƒcƒ^ƒmƒnƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒcƒ^ƒmƒnƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒrƒLƒŠƒIƒŒHƒ~ƒcƒNƒ`ƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ~ƒcƒNƒ`ƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒrƒVƒ‰ƒgƒŠƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒrƒtƒgƒRƒƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒgƒRƒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒrƒŒƒCƒVƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒTƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒIƒIƒTƒiƒM (‰ΌΜ)ƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV’΄‰Θ MEGALOMASTOMIDAE
ƒTƒtƒ‰ƒ“ƒIƒgƒƒtƒf ”‘•v—•‰³—•MƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒcƒNƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
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