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ƒA ƒJ ƒT ƒ^ ƒi ƒn ƒ} ƒ„ ƒ‰ ƒ –’Ϊ
ƒC ƒL ƒV ƒ` ƒj ƒq ƒ~ ƒŠ “‡ –’’θ
ƒE ƒN ƒX ƒc ƒk ƒt ƒ€ ƒ† ƒ‹ ’O –؏Ϊ
ƒG ƒP ƒZ ƒe ƒl ƒw ƒ ƒŒ
ƒI ƒR ƒ\ ƒg ƒm ƒz ƒ‚ ƒˆ ƒ

ƒV ( 202ƒŒƒR[ƒh)

˜a@–Ό‰Θ
ƒVƒCƒmƒ~ƒNƒ`ƒLƒŒƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒCƒmƒ~ƒ~ƒ~ƒKƒCƒIƒJƒ~ƒ~ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒIƒJƒ~ƒ~ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒCƒmƒ~ƒˆƒtƒoƒCƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ€ƒVƒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒCƒmƒ~ƒŒƒCƒV ’ΕƒmŽΐ䫎}ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒEƒJƒXƒwƒŒƒiƒMƒZƒ‹ (‰ΌΜ)ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒFƒ‹ƒtƒAƒ‰ƒXƒWƒkƒŠƒcƒ„ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC (‰ΌΜ)ƒAƒJƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒkƒŠƒcƒ„ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒFƒ“ƒuƒŠƒIƒJƒEƒYƒ}ƒL@(‰ΌΜ)ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒjƒƒRƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒIƒKƒ}ƒcƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒ^ƒoƒVƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒIƒTƒUƒiƒ~ƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒIƒTƒUƒiƒ~ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒIƒcƒKƒC Ž¬’ΓŠLƒ}ƒ‹ƒXƒ_ƒŒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒƒzƒŠƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒIƒtƒL ‰–ƒoƒJƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒoƒJƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒIƒ{ƒ‰ƒ„ƒcƒVƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒWƒcƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒIƒ„ƒKƒCƒ}ƒ‹ƒXƒ_ƒŒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ}ƒ‹ƒXƒ_ƒŒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒJƒAƒVƒJƒƒ{ƒ^ƒ“ƒCƒVƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒJƒ_ƒJƒ‰ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒJƒmƒcƒmƒKƒCƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒJƒ}ƒJƒZƒ“ Ž­ŠΤ‰ΨεdƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒLƒVƒ}ƒˆƒEƒ‰ƒNƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒMƒCƒƒtƒfƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒcƒNƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒQƒIƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC d—Yε—‹ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒIƒiƒWƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒRƒNƒIƒgƒƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒIƒiƒWƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒRƒNƒMƒZƒ‹ (ƒAƒƒWƒMƒZƒ‹)ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒRƒNƒSƒ}ƒKƒC Žl‘ŒΣ–ƒŠLƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV’΄‰Θ ƒSƒ}ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒRƒNƒxƒbƒRƒEƒRƒEƒ‰ƒiƒƒNƒW’΄‰Θ ƒxƒbƒRƒEƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒRƒƒGƒKƒC θC]ŠLƒtƒlƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒRƒƒGƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒRƒƒNƒ`ƒxƒjƒKƒCƒIƒIƒmƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ`ƒxƒjƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒRƒƒ^ƒPƒmƒRƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒPƒmƒRƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒTƒCƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒL (‰ΌΜ)ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒVƒ…ƒEƒ~ƒiƒVƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒXƒ^[ƒJƒhƒoƒŠƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC (‰ΌΜ)ƒAƒJƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒJƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒXƒgƒƒsƒA‚Μ’‡ŠΤƒAƒJƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ SYSTROPHIIDAE
ƒVƒXƒgƒƒsƒA‚Μ’‡ŠΤ02ƒAƒJƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ SYSTROPHIIDAE
ƒVƒXƒlƒƒXƒzƒ“ƒNƒ`ƒqƒŒ (‰ΌΜ)ƒ^ƒ}ƒLƒr’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ`ƒqƒŒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒYƒNƒjƒi Ž΄εƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ^ƒNƒ`ƒCƒgƒJƒPƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC (‰ΌΜ)ƒCƒgƒJƒPƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒgƒJƒPƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ^ƒ_ƒVƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒTƒ‰ƒTƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒTƒ‰ƒTƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ^ƒ_ƒ~‚ΜˆκŽνƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒYƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ^ƒ_ƒ~‚Μ’‡ŠΤ “μƒAƒtƒŠƒJƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒYƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ^ƒ_ƒ~‚Μ’‡ŠΤ02ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒYƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ^ƒ_ƒ~—ή –kŠC“Ή–’ΪƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒYƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ^ƒdƒLƒMƒZƒ‹ ‰ΊŒŽ‰ŒŠΗƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ`ƒNƒKƒC Ž‡’|ŠLƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒPƒmƒRƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ`ƒNƒ‚ƒhƒL‚Μ’‡ŠΤ01ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒPƒmƒRƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ`ƒŠƒAƒ}ƒcƒƒŠƒ_ƒJƒ‰ƒnƒiƒdƒgƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ}ƒcƒƒŠƒ_ƒJƒ‰‰Θ
ƒVƒbƒRƒEƒKƒ}ƒmƒZ (‰ΌΜ)ƒCƒVƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒhƒj[ƒNƒ‚ƒŠƒVƒmƒu (‰ΌΜ)ƒAƒTƒKƒIƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒgƒJƒPƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒhƒj[ƒTƒUƒGƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒŠƒ…ƒEƒeƒ“ƒTƒUƒG‰Θ
ƒVƒhƒƒKƒCƒXƒCƒVƒ‡ƒEƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒXƒCƒVƒ‡ƒEƒKƒC(ƒ\ƒfƒ{ƒ‰)‰Θ
ƒVƒiƒ^ƒjƒVƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒjƒV‰Θ
ƒVƒiƒuƒ“ƒIƒIƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV i‰ΌΜjƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV’΄‰Θ ƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV‰Θ
ƒVƒiƒ‚ƒ“ƒAƒtƒŠƒJƒiƒKƒjƒV (‰ΌΜ)ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒmƒmƒƒCƒ‚ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒmƒmƒƒ‚ƒ~ƒWƒ{ƒ‰ cf.ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒmƒuƒKƒCƒAƒTƒKƒIƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒgƒJƒPƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒmƒ}ƒLƒKƒC ŽΒŠͺŠLƒ„ƒcƒVƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒWƒcƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒrƒ‰ƒ^ƒ`ƒoƒiƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC (‰ΌΜ)ƒRƒEƒ‰ƒiƒƒNƒW’΄‰Θ ƒxƒbƒRƒEƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒuƒLƒUƒ‹ ”ς–—β•ŠLƒUƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒUƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ{ƒKƒNƒ_ƒ{ƒ‰ (‰ΌΜ)ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ{ƒl[ƒnƒbƒLƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ{ƒŠƒKƒCƒcƒ^ƒmƒnƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ†ƒLƒmƒJƒTƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ{ƒŠƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒLƒcƒ^ƒmƒnƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ†ƒLƒmƒJƒTƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ{ƒŠƒPƒ{ƒŠ i–Ρ’€ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒEƒ~ƒEƒTƒM‰Θ
ƒVƒ{ƒŠƒUƒNƒ‰ƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ{ƒŠƒ_ƒJƒ‰ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ{ƒŠƒ}ƒLƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒ~ƒcƒNƒ`ƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ~ƒcƒNƒ`ƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ{ƒŠƒ~ƒ]ƒKƒC‚ΜˆκŽνƒ†ƒLƒmƒAƒVƒ^ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒAƒ‰ƒnƒ_ƒ`ƒOƒT (ƒ\ƒrƒGƒ`ƒOƒT)ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒYƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒAƒ‰ƒŒƒ{ƒ‰ƒ„ƒcƒVƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒWƒcƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒAƒ‰ƒŒƒ~ƒNƒŠƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒCƒ{ƒ{ƒ‰ ŽΘαn–@—†ƒ„ƒcƒVƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ{ƒ{ƒ‰‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒCƒŠƒ`ƒŠƒ‚ƒmƒAƒ‰ƒKƒC (‰ΌΜ)ƒ‚ƒmƒAƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ (“μ•Δ‚Μƒ‚ƒmƒAƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ)
ƒVƒ}ƒCƒŠƒq[ƒŠƒAƒkƒXƒ}ƒŒ[ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC (‰ΌΜ)ƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒEƒOƒCƒXƒKƒC (ƒ~ƒhƒŠƒVƒ}ƒEƒOƒCƒXŒ^)ƒEƒOƒCƒXƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒEƒOƒCƒXƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒEƒ}ƒ_ƒJƒ‰ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒEƒ}ƒ_ƒJƒ‰ ƒuƒ‰ƒWƒ‹‚Μformƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒIƒJƒCƒVƒ}ƒL (ƒxƒjƒIƒJƒCƒVƒ}ƒL)ƒAƒ}ƒIƒuƒl’΄‰Θ ƒAƒ}ƒIƒuƒlƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒIƒgƒƒtƒfƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒcƒNƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒJƒNƒ^ƒjƒV (‰ΌΜ)ƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒjƒV‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒJƒNƒ^ƒjƒV (‰ΌΜ) ’†‘‚ΜŒ^ƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒjƒV‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒJƒmƒRƒAƒ}ƒIƒuƒl’΄‰Θ ƒAƒ}ƒIƒuƒlƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒJƒŒƒhƒjƒAƒCƒgƒ}ƒLƒ{ƒ‰ (‰ΌΜ)ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒJƒƒ{ƒ^ƒ“ƒKƒCƒCƒVƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒ‚ƒhƒLƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒL’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒL‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒ‚ƒhƒL‚ΜˆκŽνƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒL’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒL‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒ‚ƒhƒL‚ΜˆκŽν02ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒL’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒL‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒ‚ƒhƒL‚ΜˆκŽν03ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒL’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒL‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒ‚ƒhƒL‚ΜˆŸŽνƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒL’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒL‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒLƒ“ƒMƒ‡ƒUƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒUƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒPƒ‹ƒMƒZƒ‹ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒVƒ{ƒŠƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC (‰ΌΜ)ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒ^ƒP ŽΘ⑃Cƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒPƒmƒRƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒ^ƒ}ƒLƒrƒ^ƒ}ƒLƒr’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒ}ƒLƒrƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒ`ƒaƒ~ƒ{ƒ‰ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒ`ƒrƒJƒjƒ‚ƒŠ@(‰ΌΜ)ƒIƒjƒmƒcƒmƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒIƒjƒmƒcƒmƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒ`ƒ…[ƒŠƒbƒvƒ{ƒ‰ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒcƒmƒOƒ`ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒiƒ~ƒ}ƒKƒVƒƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒLƒiƒ~ƒ}ƒKƒVƒ’΄‰Θ ƒiƒ~ƒ}ƒKƒVƒ‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒlƒjƒVƒL? ƒCƒ^ƒ„ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒƒ^ƒ]ƒRƒcƒLƒqƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒnƒiƒVƒRƒgƒcƒu ŽΘ–³Ž•‹Υ¬—†ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒnƒ}ƒcƒ{ ŽΘ•l¬—†ƒIƒjƒmƒcƒmƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ~ƒWƒ“ƒEƒLƒcƒ{‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒnƒ‰ƒuƒgƒTƒ{ƒeƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC (‰ΌΜ)ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒqƒ^ƒ`ƒIƒrƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒKƒNƒtƒ{ƒ‰(ƒqƒ^ƒ`ƒIƒr)‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒuƒNƒƒcƒuƒ^ƒ}ƒLƒr’΄‰Θ ƒ\ƒrƒGƒcƒu‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒwƒiƒ^ƒŠƒIƒjƒmƒcƒmƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒEƒ~ƒjƒi‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒxƒbƒRƒEƒoƒC ŽΘꈍb蛽ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒ}ƒƒEƒ‰ƒVƒ}‹ίŽ—ŽνƒIƒIƒVƒCƒmƒ~ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ}ƒƒEƒ‰ƒVƒ}ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒƒmƒEƒtƒlƒKƒCƒJƒŠƒoƒKƒTƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒJƒŠƒoƒKƒTƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ}ƒŒƒCƒVƒ_ƒ}ƒVƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ~ƒcƒLƒ}ƒNƒ‰ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ}ƒNƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ€ƒƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC (‰ΌΜ)ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒNƒ`ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒNƒ`ƒ„ƒ}ƒLƒTƒSƒAƒ}ƒIƒuƒl’΄‰Θ ƒ„ƒ}ƒLƒTƒS‰Θ
ƒVƒ‚ƒIƒLƒUƒ‹ ‘š’u╃Uƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒUƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‚ƒ_ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒIƒiƒWƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‚ƒ`ƒLƒoƒTƒiƒMƒKƒCƒTƒiƒMƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒoƒTƒiƒMƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‚ƒgƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‚ƒgƒ`ƒ‡ƒEƒWƒKƒC βš’šŽšŠLƒŠƒ\ƒcƒ{’΄‰Θ ƒŠƒ\ƒcƒ{‰Θ
ƒVƒ‚ƒgƒ{ƒ‰ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒIƒjƒRƒuƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‚ƒtƒŠƒ_ƒJƒ‰ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‚ƒtƒŠƒjƒ“ƒMƒ‡ƒEƒ{ƒ‰ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒKƒNƒtƒ{ƒ‰(ƒqƒ^ƒ`ƒIƒr)‰Θ
ƒVƒ‚ƒtƒŠƒpƒCƒvƒKƒCƒTƒ‰ƒTƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒIƒIƒTƒiƒMƒ„ƒ}ƒCƒgƒJƒP‰Θ
ƒVƒ‚ƒtƒŠƒwƒŠƒgƒŠƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒwƒŠƒgƒŠƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒ‚ƒuƒNƒŒƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‚ΜˆκŽνƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‚ƒuƒNƒŒƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‚Μ’‡ŠΤƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒƒƒNƒVƒKƒC ŽΫŽqŠLƒXƒiƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒƒƒNƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒƒNƒVƒKƒC‚Μ’‡ŠΤƒXƒiƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒƒƒNƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒƒNƒVƒKƒCƒ‚ƒhƒLƒXƒiƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒƒƒNƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒƒNƒVƒƒEƒoƒC ŽΫŽqδc”~ƒVƒƒƒEƒoƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒƒƒEƒoƒC(ƒƒEƒoƒCƒKƒC)‰Θ
ƒVƒƒƒNƒiƒQƒCƒ‚ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒƒNƒ~ƒmƒ^ƒEƒ`ƒKƒC (‰ΌΜ)ƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV’΄‰Θ ƒSƒ}ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒƒRƒKƒLƒJƒL’΄‰Θ ƒxƒbƒRƒEƒKƒL‰Θ
ƒVƒƒƒSƒEƒKƒC ?妊LƒVƒƒƒRƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒƒƒRƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒƒWƒNƒJƒƒjƒi ŽΤŽ²μ吃IƒjƒmƒcƒmƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒJƒƒjƒi‰Θ
ƒVƒƒƒWƒNƒKƒC ŽΤŽ²ŠLƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒƒWƒNƒKƒC‚Μ’‡ŠΤ ƒjƒ…[ƒW[ƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒƒWƒNƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒƒWƒN—ή‚Μ’‡ŠΤ (‹{ι01) –’ΪƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒƒ`ƒzƒRƒkƒ}ƒKƒCƒCƒVƒKƒC’΄‰Θ HYRIIDAE
ƒVƒƒƒ€ƒCƒ‚ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒƒ€ƒjƒVƒLƒ~ƒiƒVƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒƒƒ“ƒNƒKƒCƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒIƒjƒRƒuƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ…ƒGƒbƒgƒAƒIƒMƒZƒ‹ i‰ΌΜjƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ…ƒXƒdƒcƒ~ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒEƒ~ƒEƒTƒM‰Θ
ƒVƒ…ƒ}ƒ_ƒ‰ƒMƒŠ(ƒVƒ…ƒ}ƒ_ƒ‰ƒ^ƒP)ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒPƒmƒRƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒ…ƒ‚ƒNƒKƒC “³–ΨŠL (ƒVƒ…ƒ‚ƒNƒKƒL)ƒEƒOƒCƒXƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒ…ƒ‚ƒNƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ…ƒŠƒPƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒIƒiƒWƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ…ƒŠƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ…ƒƒmƒnƒLƒ“ƒ`ƒƒƒN ž‘ŸL‚Μ—t‹Π’…ƒCƒ^ƒ„ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ^ƒ„ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ…ƒ“ƒvƒNƒVƒƒƒNƒV t•ŸŽΫŽqƒXƒiƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒƒƒNƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‡ƒEƒSƒCƒ“ƒcƒLƒKƒC ΉŒμ‰@ŒŽŠLƒcƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒcƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‡ƒEƒWƒ‡ƒEƒJƒ^ƒxƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒŠƒ…ƒEƒeƒ“ƒTƒUƒG‰Θ
ƒVƒ‡ƒEƒWƒ‡ƒEƒKƒC ΰ́XŠLƒCƒ^ƒ„ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒEƒ~ƒMƒNƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‡ƒEƒWƒ‡ƒEƒnƒŠƒTƒUƒGƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒŠƒ…ƒEƒeƒ“ƒTƒUƒG‰Θ
ƒVƒ‡ƒEƒWƒ‡ƒEƒqƒoƒŠƒCƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒ‡ƒNƒRƒEƒIƒjƒ€ƒVƒƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒ‡ƒNƒRƒEƒ‰‰Θ
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ƒVƒ‡ƒNƒRƒEƒ~ƒiƒVƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒ‡ƒNƒRƒEƒ‰ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒ‡ƒNƒRƒEƒ‰‰Θ
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ƒVƒ‰ƒIƒKƒC (ƒqƒ‰ƒVƒ‰ƒI) ”’”φŠLƒ}ƒ‹ƒXƒ_ƒŒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ}ƒ‹ƒXƒ_ƒŒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒMƒN(ƒqƒƒMƒN)ƒKƒCƒŠƒ\ƒcƒ{’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ\ƒRƒnƒNƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒ‰ƒNƒ‚ƒIƒgƒƒtƒf ”’‰_‰³—•MƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒcƒNƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒNƒ‚ƒKƒCƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒQƒKƒC ”’•ΔŠLƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒgƒRƒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒTƒMƒAƒ‰ƒ{ƒŠƒNƒ`ƒLƒŒƒcƒuƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒXƒiƒKƒC ”’»ŠLƒIƒIƒVƒ‰ƒXƒiƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒ‰ƒXƒiƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒXƒiƒ†ƒLƒ~ƒmƒ~ƒmƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ~ƒmƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒ^ƒP ”’⑃Cƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒPƒmƒRƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒ‰ƒ^ƒ}ƒJƒZƒ“ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒ‰ƒ^ƒ}ƒKƒC‚Μ’‡ŠΤƒnƒiƒdƒgƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒ‰ƒ^ƒ}ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒ^ƒ}ƒRƒSƒƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒwƒŠƒgƒŠƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒ^ƒ}ƒUƒ“ƒVƒ‡ƒEƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒŠƒ…ƒEƒeƒ“ƒTƒUƒG‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒ^ƒ}ƒ}ƒƒEƒ‰ƒVƒ}ƒIƒIƒVƒCƒmƒ~ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ}ƒƒEƒ‰ƒVƒ}ƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒ‰ƒgƒŠƒKƒC‚ΜˆκŽνƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒgƒŠƒ‚ƒhƒLƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒiƒ~ƒKƒCƒVƒƒƒRƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒƒƒRƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒlƒ^ƒPƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒPƒmƒRƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒ{ƒVƒAƒtƒŠƒJƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒAƒtƒŠƒJƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒtƒŠƒJƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒ{ƒVƒVƒ^ƒ_ƒ~ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒYƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒ‰ƒ{ƒVƒVƒƒƒWƒN‚Μ’‡ŠΤƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒ{ƒVƒVƒƒƒWƒN‚Μ’‡ŠΤ02ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒ{ƒVƒcƒmƒ}ƒ^ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒ{ƒVƒwƒŠƒgƒŠ (ƒVƒ‰ƒ†ƒLƒwƒŠƒgƒŠ)ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒwƒŠƒgƒŠƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒ{ƒVƒ€ƒMƒKƒCƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒgƒRƒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒ{ƒŠƒLƒoƒŒƒCƒVƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒ‰ƒ†ƒLƒLƒŠƒIƒŒ ?ƒ~ƒcƒNƒ`ƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ~ƒcƒNƒ`ƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‰ƒ†ƒLƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒJƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒŠƒAƒcƒuƒŠƒ{ƒ‰ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒŠƒIƒŒƒMƒZƒ‹ Kά‰ŒŠΗƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒŠƒIƒŒƒgƒmƒTƒ}ƒMƒZƒ‹ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒŠƒuƒgƒJƒCƒR‚Μ’‡ŠΤƒiƒcƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒwƒRƒ~ƒcƒ‰ƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒŠƒuƒgƒJƒCƒRƒKƒCƒ_ƒ}ƒVƒiƒcƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒwƒRƒ~ƒcƒ‰ƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒŠƒuƒgƒMƒZƒ‹ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒŠƒuƒgƒSƒ}ƒKƒC K‘ΎŒΣ–ƒŠLƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV’΄‰Θ ƒSƒ}ƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒŠƒ{ƒ\ƒMƒZƒ‹ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒ‹ƒNƒCƒ‚ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒŒƒiƒVƒWƒ~ (ƒ}ƒ“ƒOƒ[ƒuƒVƒWƒ~Aƒqƒ‹ƒMƒVƒWƒ~)ƒVƒWƒ~’΄‰Θ ƒVƒWƒ~‰Θ
ƒVƒƒAƒIƒŠƒKƒCƒEƒOƒCƒXƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ}ƒNƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒAƒ„ƒVƒ^ƒ_ƒ~ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒYƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒAƒ‰ƒŒƒ€ƒVƒƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ€ƒVƒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒAƒ“ƒ{ƒCƒiƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒCƒIƒEƒRƒ_ƒ}ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒRƒ_ƒ}ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒCƒKƒŒƒCƒVƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒCƒgƒJƒPƒMƒŠƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒCƒ{ƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒ~ƒcƒNƒ`ƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ~ƒcƒNƒ`ƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒCƒ{ƒjƒNƒ^ƒPƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒPƒmƒRƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒCƒ{ƒŒƒCƒVƒ_ƒ}ƒVƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒCƒ“ƒRƒCƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒƒEƒlƒiƒƒ{ƒ‰ƒJƒŠƒoƒKƒTƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒqƒQƒ}ƒLƒiƒƒ{ƒ‰‰Θ
ƒVƒƒEƒlƒqƒƒNƒ`ƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒ}ƒLƒr (‰ΌΜ)ƒ^ƒ}ƒLƒr’΄‰Θ ƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒ}ƒLƒr‰Θ
ƒVƒƒEƒ~ƒMƒNƒCƒ^ƒ„ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒEƒ~ƒMƒNƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒGƒŠƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒ~ƒcƒNƒ`ƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ~ƒcƒNƒ`ƒLƒŠƒIƒŒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒIƒrƒEƒRƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC (‰ΌΜ)ƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒIƒrƒEƒ~ƒEƒTƒMƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒEƒ~ƒEƒTƒM‰Θ
ƒVƒƒIƒrƒGƒ“ƒXƒCƒpƒvƒAƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒIƒrƒLƒkƒdƒcƒ~ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒEƒ~ƒEƒTƒM‰Θ
ƒVƒƒIƒrƒNƒƒ^ƒPƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒPƒmƒRƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒIƒrƒNƒƒeƒ“ƒOƒjƒVƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒJƒ“ƒ€ƒŠƒ{ƒ‰‰Θ
ƒVƒƒIƒrƒRƒ_ƒ}ƒEƒTƒMƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒEƒ~ƒEƒTƒM‰Θ
ƒVƒƒIƒrƒRƒ_ƒ}ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒRƒ_ƒ}ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒIƒrƒRƒxƒjƒtƒf ”’‘я¬g•MƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒfƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒIƒrƒ`ƒƒƒCƒƒ~ƒmƒ€ƒV (‰ΌΜ)ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒcƒNƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒIƒrƒqƒƒ‹ƒŠƒKƒCƒAƒTƒKƒIƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒTƒKƒIƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒIƒrƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‚Μ’‡ŠΤ02ƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒiƒ“ƒoƒ“ƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒIƒrƒ‚ƒNƒƒ}ƒcƒ€ƒVƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒgƒRƒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒJƒmƒRƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC (‰ΌΜ)ƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV’΄‰Θ ƒ„ƒ}ƒ^ƒjƒV‰Θ
ƒVƒƒJƒ~ƒXƒWƒ_ƒJƒ‰ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒJƒƒKƒCƒJƒƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒƒKƒCƒcƒ^ƒmƒnƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ†ƒLƒmƒJƒTƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒKƒTƒKƒC‚Μ’‡ŠΤ ƒAƒCƒXƒ‰ƒ“ƒhƒcƒ^ƒmƒnƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒVƒƒKƒTƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒKƒlƒVƒ^ƒ_ƒ~ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒYƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒKƒlƒVƒ^ƒ_ƒ~‚Μ’‡ŠΤƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒYƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒKƒlƒ_ƒJƒ‰ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒKƒ“ƒ[ƒLƒ{ƒ‰ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒLƒLƒ‡ƒEƒjƒVƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒLƒkƒ^ƒAƒQƒ}ƒLƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒkƒ^ƒAƒQƒ}ƒL‰Θ
ƒVƒƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC@’n’†ŠCƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒNƒ`ƒ`ƒ`ƒJƒPƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC ‰ΌΜƒTƒ‰ƒTƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ ƒTƒ‰ƒTƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒRƒSƒƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒRƒSƒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒRƒjƒNƒ^ƒPƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒPƒmƒRƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒRƒ€ƒVƒ ”’Žqδ­ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ€ƒVƒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒSƒ}ƒtƒkƒJƒ{ƒ‰‚Μ‹ίŽ—ŽνƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒTƒiƒMƒCƒgƒJƒPƒMƒŠƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒgƒEƒKƒ^ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒTƒoƒNƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒCƒ}ƒC’΄‰Θ SPHINCTEROCHILIDAE
ƒVƒƒTƒ‰ƒŠƒXƒ\ƒˆƒcƒƒ_ƒJƒ‰ (‰ΌΜ)ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒUƒ‹ƒKƒCƒLƒNƒUƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒNƒUƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒVƒmƒ}ƒL ”’ŽΒŠͺƒ„ƒcƒVƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒWƒcƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒƒXƒ\ƒJƒPƒKƒCƒXƒJƒVƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒXƒJƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒXƒ\ƒ€ƒ‰ƒTƒLƒ_ƒJƒ‰ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒXƒ\ƒˆƒcƒƒ_ƒJƒ‰ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒZƒCƒƒ“ƒCƒ‚ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒƒ^ƒ}ƒSƒ€ƒVƒƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ€ƒVƒƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒ`ƒ‡ƒEƒEƒOƒCƒX ”’’±ιςƒEƒOƒCƒXƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒEƒOƒCƒXƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒ`ƒ‡ƒEƒKƒC ”’’±ŠLƒEƒOƒCƒXƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒEƒOƒCƒXƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒ`ƒ‡ƒEƒjƒVƒL (ƒcƒdƒŒƒmƒjƒVƒL)ƒCƒ^ƒ„ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ^ƒ„ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒgƒ‰ƒtƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒL ”’ŒΥ”ΑŠΗŠͺƒCƒ‚ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒNƒ_ƒ}ƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒiƒcƒƒ_ƒJƒ‰ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ^ƒJƒ‰ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒiƒcƒ‚ƒ‚ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒY’΄‰Θ ƒjƒVƒLƒEƒYƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒiƒ~ƒMƒZƒ‹ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒiƒ‹ƒgƒ{ƒ‰ƒ„ƒcƒVƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒIƒLƒjƒV‰Θ
ƒVƒƒjƒVƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒnƒ_ƒMƒZƒ‹ ”’•†‰ŒŠΗƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒƒnƒ}ƒOƒŠƒ}ƒ‹ƒXƒ_ƒŒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒ}ƒ‹ƒXƒ_ƒŒƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒƒoƒgƒKƒCƒjƒbƒRƒEƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒTƒWƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒoƒŠƒMƒZƒ‹ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒLƒZƒ‹ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒoƒŠƒSƒEƒiƒnƒiƒSƒEƒi’΄‰Θ ƒnƒiƒSƒEƒi‰Θ
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ƒVƒƒqƒƒiƒKƒjƒVƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒƒtƒCƒƒhƒŠƒiƒfƒVƒRƒCƒ^ƒ„ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ^ƒ„ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒtƒCƒƒhƒŠƒnƒŠƒiƒfƒVƒRƒCƒ^ƒ„ƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒCƒ^ƒ„ƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒtƒIƒrƒtƒfƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒfƒKƒC‰Θ
ƒVƒƒtƒJƒoƒXƒWƒIƒgƒƒtƒfƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒcƒNƒVƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒƒtƒ„ƒ^ƒeƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒfƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒƒoƒC α°?ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒGƒ]ƒoƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒƒtƒWƒcƒ„ƒcƒVƒƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒtƒWƒcƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒVƒ“ƒSƒJƒZƒ“ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒAƒNƒLƒKƒC‰Θ
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ƒWƒ“ƒKƒTƒqƒgƒGƒKƒC‚ΜˆκŽνƒWƒ“ƒKƒTƒqƒgƒGƒKƒC’΄‰Θ ƒWƒ“ƒKƒTƒqƒgƒGƒKƒC‰Θ

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